What Is Lung Cancer? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Lung cancer is a type of cancer. Abnormal growth of abnormal cells – usually in cells lining the bronchi (tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs) or in other parts of the lungs, according to the American Cancer Society. ۔ (1)

According to the National Cancer Institute, lung cancer is by far the leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. (2)

Types of Lung Cancer

There are two main types of lung cancer.

Non-small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer

Types of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, 80 to 85% of people with lung cancer have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (1)

According to the National Institutes of Health, there are three main forms of NSCLC: (3)

Adenocarcinomas are a common form of NSCLC, often found in the outer area of a lung.
Squamous cell carcinomas are usually found in the middle of the lungs with a bronchi.
Large cell carcinomas can occur anywhere in the lungs

Types of Small-Cell Lung Cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 10 to 15% of lung cancers in the United States. (1)

According to Lang Cancer Arg, small cell lung cancer is more aggressive than non-small cell lung cancer. (4)

Stages of Lung Cancer

Once doctors have diagnosed lung cancer and identified its type, the next step is to determine the size and extent of the tumor and determine how far the cancer has spread. Is.

Steps are an important part of determining treatment. Different types of lung cancer are treated differently.

Main Stages of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

NSCLC can range from stage 0 to stage 4 lung cancer, with many subtypes in general, the higher the number, the more advanced the disease will be.

Here the error simplifies the standard: (5.6)

Stage 0 cancer is very small and does not spread beyond the lining of the lungs. It is sometimes known as “carcinoma”.
Stage 1 cancer only occurs in the lungs and does not spread to any lymph nodes. The tumor is usually smaller than 4 cm (cm) – about 1.5 inches.
Stage 2 cancer is larger than 4 cm or has spread to nearby lymph nodes, chest wall, lining of the lungs or diaphragm.
Stage 3 cancer is larger than 7 centimeters (approximately 33 inches) or has spread to nearby tissues or to the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest.
Stage 4 Cancer has spread to both lungs, the fluid around the lungs or the heart, or to more distant areas such as the body, brain, bones and liver.

Main Stages of Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

According to the American Cancer Society, small cell lung cancer is usually divided into two stages: (7)

Limited stage cancer occurs only on one side of the chest. If the lymph nodes are affected, they are usually on this side of the chest as well.
Stage cancer has spread to the entire lung, other lungs, lymph nodes on both sides of the chest, or other parts of the body. Most people with SCLC have a wide range of illnesses when diagnosed.

Signs and Symptoms of Lung Cancer

The symptoms of lung cancer usually do not appear until the disease progresses. According to the Mayo Clinic, symptoms of lung cancer include:

A new cough that doesn’t go away
Cough blood, even in small amounts
Shortness of breath
Chest pain
Hollowness
Lose weight without trying
Bone pain
Headache (8)

Causes and Risk Factors of Lung Cancer

Tobacco smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, smoking causes 9 out of 10 cases of lung cancer in men and 8 out of 10 cases of lung cancer in women. (10)

According to the American Cancer Society, cigar smoking and pipe smoking are more likely to cause cancer than smoking cigarettes. (11)

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), other factors that increase the risk of lung cancer include: (12)

Environmental risk factors, such as exposure to gas radon
Cigarette smoke or other tobacco smoke
Family history of lung cancer
Chest radiation as a treatment for other cancers
Workplace exposure to substances such as asbestos

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