What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

People with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more sensitive when they talk about their gut.

Although the cause of IBS is not known, it affects the colon or rectum and is often caused by certain foods, medications and stress, which can cause abdominal pain and cramps, excess gas and diarrhea, constipation. , Or both. (1)

IBS does not cause permanent damage to the digestive system, nor does it increase the risk of colorectal cancer, unlike inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is sometimes associated with IBS but is a very different condition. (2) Still, IBS can be frustrating and even debilitating, affecting a person’s physical, emotional and social well-being.

Signs and Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

IBS symptoms may include: (3,4)

Stomach pain
Climb or bloom
Excess gas
Diarrhea or constipation, or any change
But not all IBS are the same. There are four types: (4)

IBS-D may include loose stools, urgent need to go to the toilet, pain and abdominal pain.
IBS-C may cause bowel movements to fail or you may want to move, but you can’t.
IBS-mixed symptoms include both diarrhea and constipation.
IBS-Undefined symptoms follow an irregular pattern.

Causes and Risk Factors of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Researchers don’t know exactly why some people get IBS, but they speculate that tension between the gut and the brain, certain foods and nerve signals can trigger symptoms. (5)

The Brain and Gut Connection

Millions of nerve cells live in the lining of the GI track, almost like any other tract in the brain. It’s called the intestinal nervous system, and it controls digestion and tells the intestines when to contract, move, and make fluids. There is growing evidence that the brain and intestines communicate through this vast network of nerves. (6)

“When we express our feelings” When we express our feelings we say that we feel sick or nauseous, or [it] is a feeling of gut wrenching, since our feelings are found in our gut, “The practice is at the Cleveland Clinic Institute of Digestive Disease and Surgery in Ohio,” says Judith Scheman, director of the PhD.

Some experts believe that IBS is the cause of communication problems. “We all respond to stress physically, and some of us physically react to our intestines like diarrhea or constipation, while others respond with headaches or back pain,” says Dr. Schman. happens.”

The problem is that the reaction to stress in the gut can cause a vicious cycle, in which stress causes symptoms and vice versa, also called opinion loop. “Every time you turn it around, it gets worse, like a downward spiral,” she says. When we describe it, we say we feel sick or nauseous, or [it] is a feeling of gut wrenching, since our emotions are found in our gut, ”says Judith Scheman, director of PhD. Behavioral Medicine at the Cleveland Clinic Institute of Digestive Disease and Surgery in Ohio.

Some experts believe that IBS is the cause of communication problems. “We all respond to stress physically, and some of us physically react to our intestines like diarrhea or constipation, while others respond with headaches or back pain,” says Dr. Schman. happens.”

The problem is that the reaction to stress in the gut can create a vicious cycle, in which stress causes symptoms and vice versa, also called opinion loop. “Every time you turn it around, it gets worse like a downward spiral,” she says.

An Imbalance of Bacteria in the Gut

Millions of germs inhabited the gut. Although these bacteria generally protect against infection and help the immune system, studies show that bacterial imbalances can cause IBS. (7)

Bacterial gastrointestinal conditions, also called stomach flu, begin to alter the bacterial balance in the gut. In a review published in the journal Elementary Pharmaceuticals and Therapies, researchers found that the chances of developing IBS increased sixfold after a single gastric installment. Although experts are not sure how this change occurs, some speculate that damage to the nerves in the intestine can cause symptoms of IBS.

Other studies show that some people with IBS may also have bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) of the small intestine, in which case a large amount of bacteria builds up in the small intestine and causes bloating, Causes abdominal pain and excessive gas. A survey published in the journal Gut and Liver in March 2017 found that 4 to 78% of people with IBS also have SIBO.

The relationship between the two conditions is unclear, but the use of antibiotics has been shown to reduce symptoms. (8)

Risk Factors for IBS

IBS can strike at any age, but people under the age of 50 are more likely to develop it. If you have a family member with IBS, a history of stressful life events, or a severe stomach infection, your chances of developing it increase. (4)

It develops twice as much as women and more than men. The reason why women are more affected than men is still the subject of debate, but some research, such as the one published in the Global Journal of Gastro Science in June 2014, shows that hormones, in particular, Estrogen and progesterone, which also fluctuate during menstruation. Staying in the digestive tract and IBS can contribute to the flare-up. (9)

There is also evidence that people with IBS suffer from stress or anxiety. “There’s a high overlap between the two,” said Jeffrey Boomgardner, a gastroenterologist in Santa Rosa, California. “A significant number of people with IBS also have a history of some form of abuse – emotional, physical, or sexual.”

 

 

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