What Is HPV? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Human papilloma virus – or HPV – is a group of more than 150 related viruses.

Each group in this group has an associated number, known as the “HPV serotype”.

Some HPV serotypes can cause cutaneous (skin) warts, or non-cancerous papillomas, hence the name of the virus.

Skin lesions are usually harmless, but they are a contagious disease – meaning they can be passed from one person to another – and can be aesthetically painful for some people. Miss Wars that grow on the soles of the feet, called plantar warts, can cause pain while walking.

Other types of HPV can cause genital warts, or condyloma acuminata. They are soft blows that can grow on both men and women in the anal and genital areas.

However, other types of HPV can cause dysplasia, or uncertain changes in the cervix, vagina, vulva, anus, penis, and oropharynx. In the back of the throat, which includes the base of the tongue and tonsils.

Practically everyone is infected with one or more types of HPV during their lifetime, but many people will never know it because they never have this symptom or other consequences of the infection.

Types of HPV: Skin, Mucosal, High Risk, Low Risk

HPV resides in the cells found on the surface of the skin and in the moist mucous membranes found in many areas of the body.

Skin Warts

According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), about 75% of HPV types cause warts on the skin, such as the arms, face, chest, hands and feet. (1)

In healthy people, the immune system can fight off viruses that cause skin rashes, but not often in people whose immune system is compromised. For example, through human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), drugs are suppressed by drugs to avoid rejection of organs, or to treat autoimmune diseases, or even less effective due to old age. ۔

Mucosal, or Genital, Warts

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 40 other types of HPV are considered mucosal types, or genital types (sometimes called inguinal types) because they are usually anal. Or affect the genetic area. Mucosal HPV types can affect the following physical areas.

Anas
The inner skin and urethra of the penis
Vagina, cervix, and valve
In the inner nose, mouth and throat
Inner eyelids
Mucosal HPV types are classified as low risk or high risk.

Low-Risk Mucosal HPV

Low-risk types of HPV can cause genital warts, which are found around the penis and anus, as well as in the mouth and throat.

According to the CDC, about 90% of genetic warts are caused by HPV 6 and 11 types. (2) The HPV vaccine protects against both types of HPV.

High-Risk Mucosal HPV

High-risk HPV types can cause cancer. Scientists have identified about a dozen high-risk types of HPV, although types 16 and 18 of HPV are mostly responsible for HPV-related cancers.

What Are HPV 16 and 18?

HPV 16 and 18 are types of human papilloma virus that have significantly increased the risk of cervical cancer as well as genetic cancer in men and women.

HPV-16 also causes most cases of oropharyngeal cancer and is linked to vocal bone cancer in people aged 30 and under, a study published in January 2019 in Oncology of Rheumatology and Rheumatology. According to. (3)

The HPV vaccine protects both HPV types 16 and 18, as well as many other types of cancer and two main causes of the virus.

Signs and Symptoms of HPV

Different types of HPV cause different symptoms.

Skin warts, which range in size, shape, and appearance, are usually diagnosed by visual inspection. If it is not clear if the growth is a wart, the dermatologist may take a biopsy, or small tissue sample, to examine under a microscope.

Genital warts can also be easily diagnosed at a glance, or the doctor will try to whiten the wart. An acetic acid solution can be used in this area, which makes them more visible.

There are no symptoms due to uncertain changes in the cells in the cervix but it can be detected by a pop test, in which a sample of cells is collected and examined under a microscope.

Early vaginal, vulvar, and HPV-related cervical cancers may have no symptoms, but advanced cancers can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding or pain and discharge during intercourse.

Symptoms and signs of oropharyngeal cancer include persistent swelling of the throat, a lump in the neck and constant pain in the ear.

Bone marrow cancers usually cause hollowness or changes in the voice.

Skin cancer can cause changes in skin color and darkening of the skin.

Signs and symptoms of anal cancer include bleeding, pain, itching, or discharge from the anus. Swollen lymph nodes in the anus or genital area; And changes in bowel habits and bowel movements.

You should see your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of HPV-related cancer.

Causes and Risk Factors of HPV

Skin lesions are spread through contact with the infected person as soon as possible.

You can also spread the ropes from one part of your body to another through contact.

Children and adolescents, people who cut or hang their nails, and people with weakened immune systems are at higher risk of developing common warts.

Mucosal HPV types are transmitted through skin-to-skin contact – usually through vaginal or anal sex but also through oral sex.

Anyone who is sexually active is at risk of getting HPV, even if you only have one sexual partner.

You are at higher risk of genetic or oral HPV if you:

No vaccines have been given against HPV
There are many sexual partners
There is a sexual partner who has many sexual partners
Under 25 years old
You were 16 years of age or younger when you started having sex
Are uncircumcised
Is there a woman who has a male sexual partner who is uncircumcised?
Still, almost all sexually active men and women take HPV at some point in their lives, the CDC notes, and it is not uncommon to be infected with more than one type of HPV at a time.

HPV can cause symptoms many years after you become infected, so it is often impossible to know who transmitted the virus to you.

Even with symptoms, you can pass HPV to other people, and you can get HPV from someone who shows no symptoms.

How Is HPV Diagnosed?

Symptoms of skin lesions and genital warts can usually be diagnosed during a physical examination, but your doctor may also refer you to a dermatologist for a biopsy to make sure your skin is in wart condition.

If you are a woman who identifies genetic warts, your doctor may also perform colposcopy – a procedure that uses light and low-powered microscopes – to look for genetic warts on your cervix that Very few to see with the naked eye.

All women can be tested for HPV infection in the cervix by an HPV test, which is done by gently removing some cervical cells with a broom and testing them for the presence of HPV. This test can detect HPV types 16 and 18 and provides extensive results for 12 other high-risk (cancer-causing) HPV types in cervical tissue.

Women who have a positive HPV test should consult their doctor about the best way to prevent cervical cancer. Generally, if HPV type 16 or 18 is found, a positive HPV test will be followed with colposcopy, or if HPV types other than 16 or 18 are found, retest in 12 months. Note The lab test notes online. (4)

In areas other than the cervix, cancer is detected by taking biopsies of areas that appear abnormal and examining the tissue under a microscope. However, scientists are already looking for ways to detect cancer – or unnecessary changes -. And in some areas, they are thriving.

In a study published in Oncology of Oncology in June 2019, researchers found that antibodies to human papilloma virus type 16, which causes the majority of HPV-associated oropharingeal cancers in the United States, occurred 6 to 40 years ago. Grows in the body. Clinical diagnosis of throat cancer, and their presence indicates a strong increasing risk of the disease. (5)

They also found that having HPV16 antibodies significantly increased the risk of throat cancer in white people compared to black people: about 100 100 times in white people, but 17 times in black people.

The researchers warn, however, that the reason people are at greater risk is that screening for oropharingeal cancer is only the first step, and that the next steps that lead to timely treatment are yet to be determined.

Duration and Prognosis of HPV

All women can be tested for HPV infection in the cervix by an HPV test, which is done by gently removing some cervical cells with a broom and testing them for the presence of HPV. This test can detect HPV types 16 and 18 and provides extensive results for 12 other high-risk (cancer-causing) HPV types in cervical tissue.

Women who have a positive HPV test should consult their doctor about the best way to prevent cervical cancer. Generally, if HPV type 16 or 18 is found, a positive HPV test will be followed with colposcopy, or if HPV types other than 16 or 18 are found, retest in 12 months. Note The lab test notes online. (4)

In areas other than the cervix, cancer is detected by taking biopsies of areas that appear abnormal and examining the tissue under a microscope. However, scientists are already looking for ways to detect cancer – or unnecessary changes -. And in some areas, they are thriving.

In a study published in Oncology of Oncology in June 2019, researchers found that antibodies to human papilloma virus type 16, which causes the majority of HPV-associated oropharingeal cancers in the United States, occurred 6 to 40 years ago. Grows in the body. Clinical diagnosis of throat cancer, and their presence indicates a strong increasing risk of the disease. (5)

They also found that having HPV16 antibodies significantly increased the risk of throat cancer in white people compared to black people: about 100 100 times in white people, but 17 times in black people.

The researchers warn, however, that the reason people are at greater risk is that screening for oropharingeal cancer is only the first step, and that the next steps that lead to timely treatment are yet to be determined.

Treatment and Medication Options for HPV

How HPV is treated depends on how it affects you.

If you have a wart on your skin, you can choose to leave it alone until it disappears on its own, treat it with an antiseptic product or see your doctor for treatment.

For genetic warts, your doctor may prescribe medications for a variety of conditions to be applied to external warts at home, or you may be treated at the doctor’s office with medication, chemotherapy or surgical removal. Is.

Complete treatment of genetic warts may require digestion or repeated medication for months. Cryotherapy may also need to be repeated several times.

Similar medical and surgical treatments can be used for warts in the cervix or vagina, anus, or urethra (the tube through which urine passes out of the body). The American Family Physician says that laser treatment is another option for some internal problems. (6)

Abnormal cells in the cervix can be removed surgically or using other techniques.

And cancer caused by HPV is treated with standard cancer treatments, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery.

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