A hiatal hernia, or intermittent hernia, occurs when the upper part of your abdomen enters your chest through an opening in your diaphragm – the muscle that separates your abdomen from your chest.
The place where this happens is where your stomach and esophagus join, which is known as the break. This is where your esophagus usually ends with an opening in your diaphragm.
Sometimes, a hernia hernia does not cause any discomfort and does not require any treatment.
But in other cases, the narrow opening in your diaphragm can squeeze the part of the abdomen that keeps the stomach acid and other components around it. These contents can back up in your esophagus, causing irritation and other symptoms.
If your symptoms are relatively mild, self-care measures and medications to treat your thoughts may be enough to deal with a herniated hernia. But if your symptoms are severe, you may need surgery to help resolve them. (1, 2)
Types of Hiatal Hernias
There are two main types of hernias.
Sliding hiatal hernia: This is when part of your abdomen periodically slides into your chest as it opens into your diaphragm for your esophagus.
The majority of Hayan hernias are sliding, also known as type 1.
Parapharyngeal hernia: This occurs when a portion of your stomach is pressed together with your esophagus into the opening in your diaphragm, so that your esophagus and part of your stomach are squeezed together. ۔
This type of hiatal hernia is relatively rare and is divided into 2, 3 and 4 types. (3)
Causes and Risk Factors
Hyatal hernias can be caused by a weakening of your diaphragm muscle tissue, which helps your stomach open up your esophagus.
The specific causes of a weak diaphragm are not always clear, but the following factors may play a role:
Age-related changes in your diaphragm
Injury from trauma or surgery
Born with a big break (opening in the diaphragm) (2)
But a weak diaphragm is usually not enough to cause a hernia hernia – you also need increasing pressure in your abdomen to push the abdomen up through the diaphragm.
Increased abdominal pressure can be caused by the following factors.
Stress during bowel movements
Lifting heavy objects (1)
Hetal hernias can occur at any age and can affect both sexes. The following factors, however, make it more likely that you will have an experience.
Being 50 years of age or older
Being overweight or obese
Symptoms of a Hiatal Hernia
Many peripheral hernias, especially minor ones, do not cause symptoms and do not require any treatment. (2)
But if your hernia hernia is causing backflow of acid and other stomach components into your esophagus, you may experience the following symptoms.
Feeling of burning in the chest and stomach
Acidic or sour taste in your mouth or throat
Put food or drinks in your mouth quickly
Feeling bloated in your stomach
Frequent bounce (burial)
Chest or abdominal pain
Shortness of breath
Ulcers or black stools (a sign of gastric bleeding) (1, 2)
Although a gastric hernia can cause gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to gastritis, not all people with gastric hernia develop GERD – and most people with GERD The hotel does not have a hernia.
It is also important to note that chest pain can be caused by a hernia hernia as well as heart disease, including a heart attack.
If you have chest pain, it is important to see your doctor or get emergency medical help to make sure you don’t have a heart attack. (1)
Diagnosing a Hiatal Hernia
To diagnose a hiatal hernia, your doctor will first ask you about your symptoms and perform a physical examination.
If you experience recurrent heartburn, chest or abdominal pain, your doctor may order tests to find the cause of your symptoms. These tests may include:
Swallowing barium: After drinking barium-containing chocolate, you will need to have your doctor do an X-ray to see the outline of your digestive tract.
If you have a hernia hernia, this test allows your doctor to look at its size and if there is a spasm in your abdomen – a potentially serious complication.
Upper Endoscopy: In this test, your doctor will insert a thin, flexible tube with a light and small camera into your throat and slide it under your esophagus into your abdomen.
Esophageal manometry: This test complements the muscle contraction in your esophagus when you swallow to assess its strength and muscle rhythm.
PH test: The pH test measures the level of acid in your esophagus and can help determine if your symptoms are related to acid reflux.
Gastric emptying study: If you are experiencing severe symptoms like nausea and vomiting, checking how fast food leaves your stomach can help identify causes other than hiatal hernia. Can be found (1, 2)
Treatment for Hiatal Hernias
Treatment of a hernia hernia may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery.
Your doctor will consider a number of factors, including your general health, how big your hernia is, and how severe your symptoms are. (3)
The proposed lifestyle usually involves reducing the symptoms of GERD and may include:
Reduce food and portion sizes
Avoid acidic foods, such as tomatoes and lemons
Avoid caffeine and alcohol
Limiting carbonated beverages
Limit fried and fatty foods
Eat at least three to four hours before bed
Rest or keep your head at least 6 inches high while sleeping
Avoid tight clothing around your abdomen and waist
Quitting smoking (1)
Your doctor may also prescribe the following medications to treat GERD:
Antacids: These drugs neutralize gastric acidity and include brands such as Melanta, Rolloids and Tomas.
H2-receptor blockers: These drugs reduce the production of acids and include pepsid (femotidine), tegamite (cimetidine), oxide (nizatidine), and xanthine (ranitidine).
Proton pump inhibitors: These drugs more strongly inhibit the production of acid and can help heal your esophagus. These include prevasad (lansoprazole), prelasec (omeprazole), and nexime (isoprazole). (2)
Hetal hernia requires emergency surgery if your abdomen is being squeezed so tightly that its blood supply is cut off.
Surgery may also be needed if you have severe GERD that does not respond well to lifestyle measures and medications.
To repair your hiatal hernia surgery, your doctor will pull the entire abdomen back into your abdomen and shorten the opening in your diaphragm.
Your surgeon may also repair your esophageal sphincter – the muscle that normally prevents your stomach contents from returning to your esophagus – if needed.
This surgery is usually performed laparoscopically. It involves several small incisions and uses a flexible tube with a light and camera to look inside your abdomen and chest.
Less often and usually when necessary, your doctor may choose the “open” procedure, which involves a longer incision, a longer recovery period, and a higher risk of infection, pain, and scarring. (1)