What Is Shingles? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Shingles, also known as zoster or herpes zoster, is a viral infection caused by the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that infects chickens.

Anyone with chicken pox can get leather. Once you have chickenpox, the varicella zoster virus remains inactive in your body – mostly in the spinal cord or in the nerve endings – usually for decades. If the virus reactivates, it can travel to the nerve pathways of your skin and break out quickly.

Schneigles are not deadly, but they can be very painful. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate has been rising in the United States for decades, although doctors aren’t sure what caused it. (1)

If you are over the age of 50, you can get the shingles vaccine to prevent it.

Signs and Symptoms of Shingles

Shingles usually appear as a single row of blisters that can wrap around one side of your torso, one side of your face or neck, or around one eye. It is almost always one-sided, meaning it involves only one side of the body.

According to a case report from Anne Louis Oaklander, MD, PhD, an associate professor and director of neurology at Harvard Medical School, you can: You can find itching anywhere. Neurosurgery and skin biopsy lab at Boston’s Massachusetts General Hospital. (2)

The shingles appear mostly on the torso, just because of the laws of possibility, says Joe Safdia, MD, Joe Cornell, an associate professor of neurology at Cornell Medicine and medical director of the New York Clinic in New York. City. In this part of your body, 24 nerves can host the virus instead of 10 in your lower body.

Often, it is not what the rash looks like, but how it feels before and after the rash that shows its condition. Pain is usually the first sign of shingles, and you may experience pain anywhere from one to five days before the pulses grow.

In the days before the rash appears, there can be a variety of symptoms. You may experience:

It’s getting cold
Fever
Headache
Nausea
These flu-like symptoms can feel more annoying than usual. If you’ve never emigrated, you feel like you’re on your first trip.

Anxiety and numbness in this area, which will cause itching, are other common symptoms of shingles, and you may have pain but not rash. Because shingles pain starts in the nerves, its pain is different from any other pain you may have felt before. “Neuropathic pain is burning,” says Dr. Safdih. “It’s both ridiculous and painful at the same time, and can be provoked by touching the skin.” Your skin can be so sensitive that even sunlight can cause a stabbing sensation.

Even if you are not sure if you have shine, you should still see a doctor, as immediate treatment can prevent nerve damage.

Causes and Risk Factors of Shingles

The virulent zoster virus – the virus that causes chicken pox and shingles – is part of a group of viruses called the herpes virus. This group also includes viruses that cause cold sores (oral herpes) and genital herpes.

But varicella zoster virus is not the only virus that causes itching and genital herpes in the cold. The viruses that cause oral and genital herpes are herpes simplex 1 and herpes simplex 2.

David Patrick, MD, professor of medicine and head of the Department of Infectious Diseases at the University of Chicago, says that the herpes simplex virus does not increase your risk of contracting the virus, and vice versa. “Nor does the infection make the other person more likely.”

If you have chicken pox, you can get shine. Once the chicken pox is gone, the varicella zoster remains inactive, mainly in the spinal cord or cranial nerves. Sometimes the virus reactivates, and this is when the nerves rupture on your skin as an itch, causing scarring.

But the reason for the reactivation is not yet known. “Most of the time we have no idea what really causes the virus to reactivate,” says Dr. Patrick.

The risk of shingles increases as you get older, which can lead to fewer infections as you get older.

The following may also increase your risk of acne.

Some cancers, such as leukemia and lymphoma
Diabetes
HIV and AIDS
Immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids, are used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, as well as in people who have had an organ transplant.
Some research suggests that genetics may play a role. ()) If you have a first-degree relative – meaning parent or sibling – who has had skin rashes, this may increase your risk of getting it. () A study published in the Journal of Clinical Virology found that about 44% of people with ingrown toenails belong to the same family as those who developed it. (4)

Is Stress a Risk Factor for Shingles?

If you’ve heard of flashbacks, you’ve probably heard that someone got infected because they were stressed, perhaps after the death of a relative, immediately after the divorce. Later, or at the end of a difficult semester.

But studies have not conclusively proven that stress is a risk factor for shingles. Some studies suggest that it is (3,5,6), while others suggest that it is not. (7)

In a study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases in March 2015, researchers looked at the medical records of more than 39,000 people to see if there was an increase in cases of schizophrenia after a difficult life event, and The authors found no evidence that stress is a stimulus. (7)

“There is some controversy,” says Safdia. “We know for a fact that stress can affect the functioning of the immune system. Immunity is depressing if there is stress, and I definitely see patients who tell me they have a lot of stress when they shine. But, he added, “there are a lot of people who are stressed and can’t find leather, and a lot of people who get on vacation.”

If there is a link between stress and shingles, it may not be that stress is putting a strain on the immune system itself – it may be that stress has created a situation that reduces immunity. “Keep in mind, when you’re stressed, you don’t sleep and you don’t eat, and all of these factors can play a role,” says Safdia.

How Is Shingles Diagnosed?

Once this itch appears, the signs and symptoms usually become clear enough for a doctor to diagnose. Diagnosis is more difficult before the rash appears, or in cases where there is no rash.

In cases that are less common (for example, pain without rash), lab tests may be helpful in verifying the test. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test can be used to detect varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA in a sample of skin lesions. According to the CDC, saliva samples can also be tested, but they are less reliable for herpes poisoning than herpes varicella. (8)

Herpes zoster is sometimes associated with herpes simplex. Skin symptoms can also be misdiagnosed for conditions such as emphysema, contact dermatitis, folliculitis, itching, insect bites, psoriasis, and dermatitis. (8)

Prognosis of Shingles

Although it is not uncommon to shine more than once, it is possible to get two, three, four, or even five times more after the initial episode. (9.10)

In a study published in the journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the overall recurrence rate for shingles was 6.2%. But for those whose immune systems were compromised, the rate was double that. The authors of the Mayo Clinic paper also note that in women over the age of 50, and in those who experience 30 days or more of pain during the initial episode. Face (9)

Why do people shine more than once? “Usually, the reason for this is that immunity to zoster – and other infections – usually goes away over time,” explains Oaklander. “When you have chicken pox or rabies, it increases your immunity for the next decade or so, but if you get chicken pox, you have immunity and you You can get it back. ”

He added that people who are immune to drugs or disease, such as cancer or HIV, sometimes develop long-term, recurrent or chronic zoster infections. “That’s why it’s important for people to get vaccinated before they get older, get sick or start immunizations.”

Duration of Shingles

The blisters usually go away in 7 to 10 days, and most people who seek treatment immediately after the blisters appear get rid of the pain in two to four weeks and the lesions heal. (11) In addition, blisters often do not leave scars.

Despite treatment, an estimated 5 to 20 percent of shingles patients experience pain for weeks or years after the blisters have healed. ()) People who feel pain even after 0 or more days of onset of rash have a condition called post hepatic neuropathy or PHN. (See “Complications” for more information on PHN). (12)

Treatment and Medication Options for Shingles

There is no cure for the skin, but if you get treatment right away, it can help speed up the healing process and reduce your risk of complications.

Prevention of Shingles

According to the CDC, the recombinant zoster vaccine, known as shingles, has been approved for use since 2017 and is the preferred vaccine. In July 2020, an older, live vaccine, Zostavix, was discontinued, although the vaccine is safe. Some pharmacies and clinics still have stock that could be used in November 2020. (14)

The shingles vaccine is recommended for people aged 50 and over. Even if you already have skin or are not sure if you have ever had chicken pox, you should get vaccinated.

Prisoners cannot be transmitted between people, but the virulence zoster virus can spread to people who are not protected from chicken pox – people who have not been vaccinated against chicken pox or who do not have the disease. Has happened

About the transmission of shingles from person to person, the varicella zoster virus usually spreads from person to person through direct contact with the open wounds of shingles when there are blisters.

Once infected for the first time, the person will have a chicken sign, not a chicken.

If the rash goes away, the risk of the virus spreading to others is reduced.

But chicken pox can be dangerous for certain groups of people, including newborns, pregnant women, and anyone with a weakened immune system.

So as long as your throat blisters turn into rashes, you will be able to pass the virus on to others and therefore you should avoid contact with people who could be harmed by catching chicken pox. Is.

The following steps can help you prevent the virus from spreading.

Cover the beards.
Avoid touching or itching.
Wash your hands often.

 

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