What Is Lyme Disease? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection that can infect more than 300,000 Americans a year. Bacterial infections are spread by biting black-footed pieces, commonly called deer ticks.

The name of the disease is associated with the date of its discovery in the area around Old Lime, Connecticut. In the early 1970’s, there was an outbreak of arthritis and symptoms similar to those of teenagers. (1)

A study was conducted in 1975 to determine whether the outbreak could lead to rheumatoid arthritis. The researchers found that 25% of the patients had blister-shaped lentils called erythema migraine.

Finally, scientists discovered the link between deer tickets and Lyme disease.

How Common Is Lyme Disease?

Health departments in Colombia’s 50 states and districts report 30,000 cases of Lyme disease each year to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC officials believe the actual number of cases is 10 times higher or 300,000 people, as only a fraction of the cases are reported. (2)

Most cases are found in the northeast and midwest of the country. In fact, 14 states in these regions account for more than 96% of Lyme disease reported to the CDC.

What Are the Causes of Lyme Disease?

Lyme disease is caused by strains of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which was named after the late bacteriologist Wilhelm Burgdorfer, who helped discover it.

B. bergdorfi affects a wide range of animals, including small lizards, birds, and animals such as rats. (3)

When these insects feed on host animals as larvae and nymphs (immature pieces), these bacteria enter the bodies of black-legged pieces.

The black-legged tick does not jump or fly. Instead, they wait for the grass and bushes to spread their upper legs, and then pull on people or animals that brush.

These stamps can suck blood from any part of the body – but they are usually found in unstable areas, such as the armpits, ducts and scalp.

After being connected for 36 to 48 hours, a tick can transmit B-burgdorferry to its human host.

Most of the time, people get Lyme disease by being bitten by black-legged tick-borne ticks, because these insects are small and are less likely to go crazy quickly.

Buildings usually eat in the spring and summer months.

In 2016, the CDC, in collaboration with Mayo Clinic and health officials in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota, reported the discovery of another type of bacterium (Borrelia munioni) that causes Lyme disease in humans. Is. () Researchers believe that this bacterium can also be spread in humans by the bite of an infected black foot or deer tick.

The newly discovered bacterium was found to cause symptoms of Lyme disease associated with B. burgdorferi. These symptoms include fever, headache, rash, and neck pain in the early stages of the infection, and arthritis in more advanced cases. Unlike B. burgdorferi, B. munioni also causes nausea and vomiting, and more proliferative rashes (as opposed to the usually blister-like spots associated with Lyme disease).

Ticks can transmit a large variety of other potentially dangerous human pathogens, such as rickettsiae heliotica, which may be involved in transmitting Lyme infection to humans. ()) Further research is needed to determine what role these other bacteria may play in early-stage or chronic Lyme disease symptoms.

What Are the Risk Factors for Lyme Disease?

The general risk of contracting Lyme disease is highest between April and September, as the tick is most active during the warmer months.

If you live in the Northeast or Midwest of the United States, you are at higher risk, where most cases of Lyme disease occur.

The CDC’s recommendations for avoiding tick bites fall into three categories: Avoid contact with ticks, repel ticks on your skin or clothing, and know how to find and remove ticks from your body.

The CDC recommends that you:

Avoid high grass forest areas.
Stay in the middle of trails when walking in forested areas.
Use an insect repellent that contains at least 20% DEET.
Treat clothing with a product that contains 0.5% paracetamol, an antiperspirant that also acts as an insect repellent.
Take a bath or shower within two hours of entering the house.
When returning from a potentially tick-infested area, check the full body of the pieces in front of a mirror. Parents should check on their children.
Check out pets for any tickets.
Check any items, such as sports equipment and day packs, which may have ticks on them.
Wash clothes in warm water, and slide dry clothes on high heat for 10 minutes on low heat to kill any pieces.
If you have a tick on your body or someone else’s, it should be removed as soon as possible.

Use tweezers to catch the tick and pull upwards to avoid the rest of the tick under the skin.
Cut and clean your hands by rubbing alcohol.
Dispose of tickets in alcohol, sealed containers, or toilets.

How Is Lyme Disease Diagnosed?

Diagnosis of Lyme disease usually involves examining the history of potential discrepancies in patients’ tickets, as well as examining common signs or symptoms.

Laboratory tests are available in which blood samples are tested for evidence of antibodies that fight the Lyme disease bacteria. When testing blood for Lyme disease, the CDC recommends a two-step procedure, in which a second test is performed if the first yields a positive or uncertain result. (6)

Laboratory blood tests are not recommended for patients who have no symptoms of Lyme disease as they may yield false positive results which may lead to misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment.

Lyme disease is sometimes called “the Great Emperor” because its symptoms can vary and mimic other diseases, such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Lyme disease is often misdiagnosed because its symptoms are similar to many other conditions. Many patients are referred for Lyme disease, which eventually leads to a rheumatological or neurological condition, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Signs and Symptoms of Lyme Disease

Symptoms of Lyme disease are usually associated with blisters. But not everyone with the disease will have itching, or they may have itching with different characteristics.

According to the Lyme Des EROR, the number of people with Lyme disease is estimated at 27% to 80%. (7)

Symptoms of Lyme disease often begin with a sign of flu or influenza infection. Symptoms of early Lyme disease may include:

Fever
Feeling cold or sweating
Body aches
Muscle and joint pain
Fatigue
Nausea
Lyme disease can also cause it later in life.

“Brain fog,” or short-term memory problems
Severe headache
Severe joint pain and swelling
Pain in the veins

Treatment and Medication Options for Lyme Disease

Once diagnosed, Lyme disease is usually treated with antibiotics. The type of antibiotic prescribed to a patient depends on the stage of the disease.

According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, most cases of Lyme disease can be cured with oral antibiotics in three to four weeks.

There is currently no vaccine to prevent Lyme disease, such as the flu shot. The first available vaccine was discontinued in 2002. Over time, the vaccine’s effectiveness waned, and consumer demand declined.

 

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