What Is HPV? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Human papilloma virus – or HPV – is a group of more than 150 related viruses.

Each group in this group has an associated number, known as the “HPV serotype”.

Some HPV serotypes can cause cutaneous (skin) warts, or non-cancerous papillomas, from which the virus derives its name.

Skin lesions are usually harmless, but they are contagious – meaning they can be passed from one person to another – and they can be aesthetically painful for some people. Miss Wars that grow on the soles of the feet, called plantar warts, can also cause pain while walking.

Other types of HPV can cause genital warts, or condyloma acuminata. They are soft blows that can spread to both men and women in the anal and genital areas.

However, other types of HPV can cause dysplasia, or uncertain changes in the cervix, vagina, vulva, anus, penis, and oropharynx. In the back of the throat, which includes the base of the tongue and tonsils.

Practically everyone is infected with one or more types of HPV during their lifetime, but many people will never know it because they never have this symptom or other consequences of the infection. Are

Types of HPV: Skin, Mucosal, High Risk, Low Risk

HPV resides in the cells found on the surface of the skin and in the moist mucous membranes found in many areas of the body.

Skin Warts

According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), about 75% of HPV types cause skin rashes, such as on the arms, face, chest, hands and feet. (1)

In healthy people, the immune system can fight off viruses that cause skin rashes, but this is not often the case in people whose immune systems are compromised. For example, through the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), drugs are suppressed by drugs to avoid rejection of organs, or to treat autoimmune diseases, or the effects of aging. Be less

In these populations, skin HPV infection may not be as benign.

Mucosal, or Genital, Warts

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 40 other types of HPV are considered mucosal types, or genital types (sometimes called inguinal types) because they are usually anal. Or affect the genetic area. Mucosal HPV types can affect the following physical areas.

The inner skin and the urethra of the penis
Vagina, cervix, and valve
In the inner nose, mouth and throat
Inner eyelids
Mucosal HPV types are classified as low risk or high risk.

What Are HPV 16 and 18?

HPV 16 and 18 are types of human papilloma virus that significantly increase the risk of cervical cancer as well as genetic cancer in men and women.

HPV-16 also causes most cases of oropharyngeal cancer and is linked to vocal bone cancer in people aged 30 and under, a study published in January 2019 in Oncology of Rheumatology and Rheumatology. According to. (3)

The HPV vaccine protects both HPV types 16 and 18, as well as many other types of cancer and two main causes of the virus.

Signs and Symptoms of HPV

Different types of HPV cause different symptoms.

Skin warts, which range in size, shape, and appearance, are usually diagnosed by visual inspection. If it is not clear if the growth is a wart, the dermatologist may take a biopsy, or small tissue sample, to examine under a microscope.

Genital warts can also be easily diagnosed at a glance, or the doctor will try to whiten the wart. Apply an acetic acid solution to the area, making them more visible.

There are no symptoms due to uncertain changes in the cells in the cervix, but it can be detected by a pop test, in which a sample of cells is collected and examined under a microscope.

Early vaginal, vulvar, and HPV-related cervical cancers may have no symptoms, but advanced cancers can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding or pain and discharge during intercourse.

Symptoms and signs of oropharyngeal cancer include persistent sore throat, a lump in the neck, and persistent pain in the ear.

Bone marrow cancers usually cause hollowness or changes in the voice.

Early penile cancer can cause changes in skin color and thickening of the skin.

Signs and symptoms of anal cancer include bleeding, pain, itching, or discharge from the anus. Swollen lymph nodes in the anus or genital area; And changes in bowel habits and bowel movements.

You should see your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of HPV-related cancer.

Causes and Risk Factors of HPV

Skin lesions are spread through contact with the infected person as soon as possible.

You can also spread the ropes from one part of your body to another through contact.

Children and teenagers, people who cut or hang their nails, and people with weakened immune systems are at higher risk of developing common warts.

Mucosal HPV types are transmitted through skin-to-skin contact – usually through vaginal or anal sex but also through oral sex.

Anyone who is sexually active is at risk of getting HPV, even if you have only one sexual partner.

You are at higher risk of genetic or oral HPV if you:

There is no vaccine against HPV
There are many sexual partners
There is a sexual partner who has many sexual partners
Under 25 years old
You were 16 years of age or younger when you started having sex
Are uncircumcised
Is there a woman who has a male sexual partner who is uncircumcised?
Still, almost all sexually active men and women take HPV at some point in their lives, the CDC notes, and it is not uncommon to be infected with more than one type of HPV at a time.

HPV can cause symptoms many years after you become infected, so it is often impossible to know who transmitted the virus to you.

Even with symptoms, you can pass HPV to other people, and you can get HPV from someone who shows no symptoms.


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