What Is Dyslexia? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Have you had a lifetime of difficulty understanding words, letters, and numbers? Does your child have trouble reading or spelling? This struggle can be a sign of dyslexia, a learning disability that affects a person’s ability to process language.

“Dyslexia is a reading disorder with a fundamental phonological processing deficit,” said Katie Davis, a New York City-based academic neuroscientist and neuroscience researcher. “People with dyslexia struggle to decode individual words and have poor spelling skills.”
Patients with dyslexia may also have difficulty reading, reading comprehension, and pronunciation, according to MyClinic notes. (1)
Dyslexia is not a new condition and was described almost 150 years ago. In 1878, a German neurologist noticed that some of his patients had difficulty reading and mispronounced permanent words. He described it as “literal blindness.” According to the Rudolf Berlin Center, in 1887, a German psychologist, Rudolf Berlin, replaced the term blind with dyslexia, which means difficulty with words. (2)

Dyslexia is a learning disability, but that doesn’t mean people who have it aren’t intelligent. ()) It is very possible for people who are diagnosed with dyslexia to perform better in school and at work. But children, depending on the severity of their condition, should enroll in tuition programs or receive special education.

It is important to seek help and see a dyslexia specialist, because if left untreated, dyslexia can have a disorder that extends beyond the classroom or workplace. In particular, dyslacia is associated with anxiety, anger, embarrassment, discouragement and depression. (1)

With intervention and proper treatment, people with dyslexia can improve their reading, spelling and other language comprehension skills.

Signs and Symptoms of Dyslexia

Dyslexia can be mild or severe, and it is estimated that 15 to 20 percent of the population has symptoms of dyslexia, according to the International Dyslexia Association. (4)

Children cannot be diagnosed with dyslexia unless they start school and have difficulty understanding written language. It is important to note that dyslexia affects different people in different ways, so people with this condition have different symptoms. Some people do not realize that they have dyslexia until they get better in their youth. (1)

Kimberly R. Freeman, Executive Associate Chair at Luma Linda University in San Bernardino, California, says, “Dyslexia is usually first seen by teachers or parents who have trouble reading within the classroom setting. Observe. ” “At this point, children are often referred to a psychiatrist or other specialist for a formal diagnosis to determine the need for diagnosis and intervention.”

But while this condition can be difficult to diagnose, there are symptoms you can look for. Symptoms vary with age ایک a young child may have symptoms that are different from a school age child, and a teenager may have different symptoms than an adult.

Here are some signs of dyslexia in different age groups, according to Mayo Clinic and Yale University. (1,5)

Signs of dyslexia in non-school age children
Talking late
Difficulty learning and memorizing letters
Using the wrong words
Difficulty learning nursery rhymes or poems
Symptoms of dyslexia in elementary-school-age children
Reading below grade level
Processing difficulty
Understanding speech
Unable to remember continuity
Difficulty seeing and hearing similarities and differences in words
Difficulty finding the right words
Trouble spelling or spelling words
Avoid reading
Symptoms of dyslexia in adolescents and adults
Read slowly
Spelling problems
Using the wrong words
Spending a lot of time on writing exercises
Difficulty memorizing
Difficulty completing math problems
Unable to understand jokes or impressions
Keep in mind that having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that you or your child has dyslexia. However, you should not ignore difficulties in reading, spelling and language comprehension as they may be a sign of another condition.

Causes and Risk Factors of Dyslexia

Brain imaging studies have shown differences in the brains of people with disabilities. These differences are found in that part of the brain that involves reading skills, as noted by the International Dyslexia Association. (6)

“Dyslexia is caused by an instability in the nervous circuit that helps with reading,” says Dr. Davis. She says the circuit includes regions in the left hemisphere of the brain with temporary and frontal lobes. Areas responsible for language comprehension and expression.

According to the Neural Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, dyslexia is also thought to run in families. ()) So if you or a family member has dyslexia, there is a chance that your child will also develop this condition, even though it is nowhere near 100%.

In addition to family history being a risk factor, people who were born prematurely or who were underweight have a higher risk of dyslexia. Exposure to alcohol, drugs or infections while in the womb can also increase the risk. (1)

 

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