What Is Cerebral Palsy? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Cerebral palsy The most common cause of physical disability is found in childhood. An estimated 764,000 people in the United States live with cerebral palsy, including 1 in 323 children. (1)

Cerebral palsy is a group of neurological disorders caused by a brain injury or a rare disease that occurs before, during, or immediately after birth, while the brain is still developing. (2)

Impairment affects a person’s ability to control motor, or movement, functions. “Brain brain” refers to the brain of the brain, which controls movement.

Cerebral palsy is a permanent condition, but many treatments and therapies can help people manage their condition and improve their quality of life.

Effects of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a disorder that often leads to disability. The condition is caused by a brain injury and is not a disease. One person cannot catch a cerebral palsy or pass it on to another.

The main effects of cerebral palsy are poor muscle coordination, motor skills and overall body movement. People with cerebral palsy have difficulty controlling certain body movements or they may not be able to control them at all.

Cerebral palsy can cause certain nervous pathways – through which nerve signals travel – to work incorrectly or slowly. This condition depends on the individual, can affect a person’s posture and balance, but more than half of people with cerebral palsy can walk on their own. (2)

Cerebral palsy will never go away, but it will never go away. Traumatic brain injury is permanent and cannot be cured or cured. Conditions related to cerebral palsy, however, can get better or worse throughout a person’s life.

Physical therapy, mobility aids, surgery, medication and other treatments can help manage a person’s cerebral palsy. These treatments can enhance their ability to do certain things and live independently.

Cerebral palsy does not cause death except in infants and very young children in very rare cases.

Forms of Cerebral Palsy

There are several types of cerebral palsy, depending on the type of movement a person has and where they are in the body. () The most common type is spastic cerebral palsy, which affects about 70 to 80% of people with the condition. This type of person has increased muscle tone, which causes the muscle to stiffen and move strangely.

People with dyskinesia, or atherosclerosis, cerebral palsy (approximately 10% of cases) experience a change in muscle tone, leading to faster, faster or slower, uncontrollable movement.

The last type, atypical cerebral palsy (approximately 10% of cases), mainly causes difficulty in balance and muscle coordination.

People can have a mixture of these three types.

Even in these cases, no two cases of cerebral palsy are the same. It can affect only one arm in one person and both arm and leg in the other. It can affect the face, just the legs or the whole body.

Causes and Risk Factors of Cerebral Palsy

A wide range of exposures or events can lead to brain injury which can lead to cerebral palsy. Sometimes a physician can be sure of the cause, but other times the cause may not be known. Here are some possible reasons:

Genetic mutations can cause the brain to develop differently from the normal brain and to develop lesions, or wounds.
Traumatic brain injury from a fall, car accident, or other serious accident can cause cerebral palsy.
Childhood infections, such as viral or bacterial meningitis or other conditions with a severe, persistent fever, can cause and injure inflammation in or around the brain. Severe or untreated jaundice, when the liver does not break down old red blood cells as much, can also increase the risk of cerebral palsy.
Improper brain development during pregnancy, which can result from a number of possible causes (1)
Brain injury or insufficient oxygen during birth can cause cerebral palsy.
Inadequate blood supply to the fetus or infant’s brain, called a stroke, can also damage the brain.
Maternal infections during pregnancy can cause problems that can lead to cerebral palsy in the growing fetus.

Some exposures or conditions may increase the risk of cerebral palsy but are not necessarily the only cause. All of the following can increase the risk of stroke.

Placental problems during pregnancy, such as placenta previa, duct dysfunction, or lack of ducts, increase the risk of cerebral palsy. (4)

Many infectious diseases can increase the risk of cerebral palsy if the mother is pregnant. (5)

Chicken pox (varicella), a viral infection that can be prevented by a vaccine
Cytomegalovirus, a common viral infection that infects the surviving child only if the mother first gets the cytomegalovirus during pregnancy
Herpes is a sexually transmitted virus that can infect the umbilical cord and cause inflammation that can damage the fetal nervous system.
Rubella (German measles), a viral infection that can be prevented by a vaccine
Syphilis, sexually transmitted bacterial infection
Toxoplasmosis, caused by contaminated food, dirt, and parasites in cat sailors
Zika, a virus that is transmitted by mosquitoes, can cause microcephaly, a small head or even a brain in a newborn.
Exposure to toxic chemicals, such as methylmercury or lead, during pregnancy or early childhood increases the risk.

Pregnancy and birth complications can increase the risk of cerebral palsy.

Premature birth (before 37 weeks), as well as increased risk of having a baby
Low birth weight (5.5 pounds, or less than 2.5 kg), which reduces the risk of weight loss
Long labor (6), commonly defined as longer than 20 hours in first-time mothers, more than 14 hours for non-first-time mothers or more than 16 hours for twins, cerebral palsy Can affect risk, although not yet. Clean up if it happens. (7)
Conditions in pregnancy, such as twins or triplets; The risk increases with the number of fetuses a woman is carrying and if one of them dies before birth.
Brake births, where the baby’s feet or hips – instead of the head – are closer to the birth canal when labor begins
Pregnancy complications, including respiratory or circulatory problems in the baby
It is not clear whether injuries from force or vacuum removal are associated with a risk of cerebral palsy. The results of the study are not permanent. (8.9)
Differences in Rh blood factors between mother and baby. The Rhesus (RH) element is a protein on red blood cells that most people have. If a mother does not have RH but has a fetus, the mother’s immune system can make cells that attack her baby’s blood cells. (10.11)
Some in vitro fertilization (IVF) or infertility drugs may increase the risk of cerebral palsy, but the risk is very small. (12)

In a study in Denmark, which included approximately 590,000 children, only 0.18% developed cerebral palsy. Of the more than 33,000 babies born through IVF, 0.33% had cerebral palsy. (13)

There may be some increased risk of IVF or fertility medications as these methods and medications also increase the risk of strokes, which in turn increases the risk of premature birth. (14)

Drugs that stimulate ovulation, such as chlomide (clomiphene citrate), increase the chances of a stroke. (14)

Other conditions in the mother may increase the risk of cerebral palsy, such as thyroid problems, hypertension, seizures, epilepsy, intellectual disability or gestational diabetes. (5)

Signs and Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy

The symptoms and early signs of cerebral palsy are a long list, but they cover almost everything without any evidence of controlling a person’s muscle movement. If parents are reminding their child of important developmental milestones, they should make sure to tell their pediatrician. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides helpful milestone checklists.

Anyone’s motor skills – any kind of mobility skills – can be affected, including fine motor skills, overall motor skills, and verbal motor skills (1). Oral motor skills are related to what you do with your mouth, such as eating, drinking, or chewing gum.

Excellent motor skills indicate tasks that use small muscles from one part of the body, usually the hands, fingers or toes. These skills include writing, eating from silverware, curling fingers, turning the doorbell, or buttoning your shirt.

Aggregate motor skills use a large number of muscles throughout the body for greater mobility, such as jumping, running, swimming, bending, reaching, and carrying objects.

Examples of symptoms include stiff muscles, tremors, tremors, poor coordination, difficulty speaking, seizures, irregularity, tight or “floppy” muscles, slow movement, difficulty in sucking or swallowing, or difficulty picking objects.

Complications of Cerebral Palsy

People with cerebral palsy often have one type of other condition. For example, about 41% of children with cerebral palsy have epilepsy and about 7% have autism spectrum disorder. (2)

Other common conditions include learning disabilities, chronic pain, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mental health conditions, and vision, hearing, or speech problems.

Cerebral palsy can cause a number of complications, including muscle and coordination problems, including:

Muscle stiffness and shortening, which can slow, hinder or impair bone growth
Difficulties in feeding can lead to malnutrition, sometimes growth and bone problems.
Stress or other mental health issues related to coping with the effects of cerebral palsy
Lung disease with respiratory problems
Excessive movement or nervous disorders
Osteoarthritis, where the cartilage and then the bones break down over time
Low bone density, called osteopenia, can increase the risk of fractures
Eye muscle imbalance (5)

Treatment and Therapies for Cerebral Palsy

Treatment for cerebral palsy depends on a person’s symptoms, disability, complications and other medical conditions.

Most people with cerebral palsy will need an interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers, including a pediatrician, neurologist, a mental health practitioner, orthopedic surgeon, physical therapist, speech therapist, professional therapist, and Others are included.

Speech therapy, physical therapy, and occupational therapy can help improve life and communication skills.

A person with cerebral palsy may take medication to treat seizures or muscle problems, and may also have surgery on their muscles, spinal cord, brain, eyes, or abdomen.

Functioning as a Family When a Child Has Cerebral Palsy

When a child has cerebral palsy, his whole family is affected. When a parent is diagnosed for the first time, parents can go through this period of grief, and experience a high level of stress over time due to a lot of care stress. What does it mean for siblings to have a brother or sister with needs and abilities so that they can be different from themselves?

Despite the challenges that come with CP as a family member, couples and families who take the time to communicate with each other – and for their own care, as well as protecting a child with CP ۔ Family

Reaching out to family members as well as local groups and organizations for support can help a family find the emotional and practical support they need.

Prevention of Cerebral Palsy

It is not possible to prevent all or most cases of cerebral palsy. But it is possible to reduce the risk of stroke, especially during pregnancy.

Pregnant women can do this to reduce the risk.

Take care of proper prenatal care and attend all appointments, so your doctor is alerted to issues such as premature labor, drainage problems, and other risk factors.
Get treatment for pregnancy complications, such as pre-existing leukemia, gestational diabetes, anemia, and vascular problems. (17)
Get all the recommended vaccines before or during pregnancy to prevent infection that can increase the risk of stroke. (17)
Avoid activities that increase the risk of toxoplasmosis. (18)
Use mosquito repellent and other precautions (air conditioning, long sleeves and pants, etc.) in Zika-affected areas. (19)
Get RH factor testing. If negative, seek treatment. (17)
Avoid smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs, and unnecessary drugs.
Avoid being with X-rays unless absolutely necessary.
Eat a healthy diet that includes all the essential vitamins and minerals.
After birth, parents and carers can reduce the risk by doing the following.

Make sure your child is getting all the recommended vaccines, which prevent infections that can cause cerebral palsy. (17)
Educate yourself about agitated baby syndrome, also called head abuse, and have a support network to help you adjust as a parent and understand your child’s behavior. ۔ (20,21)
Follow child safety guidelines, such as using a car seat, a safe crib without memories, a bicycle helmet while riding, and similar safety precautions. (17)

 

Check Also

What Are Sulfonamides?

‘Sulfa drugs’ were some of the original antibiotics, and are still in use today. Sulfonamides, …

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *